early morning chatty group

The aim is to help students' comprehension. You will find five sections for each unit: 1 Text [Reading for Global Comprehension] 2 Text with HotSpots [Synthetic Reading - students try to synthesize the meaning from context] 3 HotSpots and Intermediate VocabBox [Analytic Reading - students get the meaning through explanation, and examples] 4 HotSpots and Advanced VocabBox [explanations at a more professional level] 5 Crossword Puzzle - to practise the written forms and to use the knowledge

Name:
Location: Budapest, Europe, Hungary

Sunday, March 27, 2005

Chatty 015 Cloze Test and Crossword Puzzle: Why is the Ocean Salty?

Please click here for a Cloze Test on Why is the Ocean Salty. If you send me an email, I'll be quite happy to send you a crossword about this topic.Please put 'Chatty 015 Crossword Puzzle: Why is the Ocean Salty?' in the Subject line.

Friday, March 25, 2005

Chatty 014 HotSpots & Advanced VocabBox: Why is the Ocean Salty?

OCEAN
soluble
earth's surface
Equator
continent of Europe
sea water
water of salt lakes
salt springs
deposits of rock salt
enclosed seas
Mediterranean
Red Sea
open seas
Dead Sea
beds of rock salt
evaporation of sea water
fresh water
commercial salt salt story
obtained from rock salt
drill wells down to the salt beds
pipe

Chatty 013 HotSpots & Intermediate VocabBox & Glossary & Vocabulary Double-Check: Why is the Ocean Salty?

Why is the ocean salty? Why is the ocean salty? #2
OCEAN: a very large stretch of sea, esp. one of the five oceans of the world, the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic; the body of salt water covering approximately 70 per cent of the earth's surface
soluble: easily dissolved in some solvent, usually water
earth's surface: land area, about 148,300,000 sq km, or about 30% of total surface area; water area, about 361,800,000 sq km, or about 70% of total surface area
dissolved: it has gone into solution like the salt dissolved in water
180 miles high: 289.62 kilometers high
a mile thick: 1.609 kilometers thick
Equator: the great circle of the earth with the latitude of 0 degree, lying equal distances from the two poles; dividing the North and South Hemispheres
bulk: here it means a large body
continent of Europe: the second smallest continent, forming the West extension of Eurasia; the border with Asia runs from the Urals to the Caspian and the Black Sea; the coastline is generally extremely indented and there are several peninsulas in Scandinavia, Italy, and Iberia and offshore islands including the British Isles and iceland; it contains a series of great mountain systems in the South like the Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines, Carpathians, and Caucasus, a large central plain, and a North region of lakes and mountains in Scandinavia
sea water: is water from a sea or ocean; on average, sea water in the world's oceans has a salinity of ~3.5%; this means that for every 1 liter (1000mL) of sea water there are 35 grams of salts (mostly, but not entirely, sodium chloride) dissolved in it; water with this level of osmolarity is, of course, not potable;sea water is not uniformly saline throughout the world; the planet's freshest sea water is in the Gulf of Finland, part of the Baltic Sea; the most saline open sea is the Red Sea, where high temperatures and confined circulation result in high rates of surface evaporation and there is little fresh inflow from rivers; the salinity in isolated seas (for example, the Dead Sea) can be considerably greater; the density of sea water is between 1020 and 1030 kg/m3
water of salt lakes: are found only in regions of the World with low rainfall and high evaporation such as Australia, Iran, Turkey, USA and Bolivia; all salt lakes are terminal with no outlet to the sea
salt springs: a natural outflows of ground-water that contain dissolved minerals or gases; they form the sourses of streams
salt: a colourless or white mineral that is sometimes tinted by impurities; it is found in beds as an exaporite; it is used to produce common salt and chlorine; composition sodium chloride; formula NaCl; chrystal structure cubic; also called haline
deposits of rock salt: deposits of rock salt #2: all natural, underground salt (also known as the mineral halite) deposits, came from ancient oceans; these deposits are the resources for the production of dry salt and salt in brine; salt deposits are often found adjacent to petroleum deposits
enclosed seas: enclosed or semi-enclosed sea means a gulf, basin or sea surrounded by two or more States and connected to another sea or the ocean by a narrow outlet or consisting entirely or primarily of the territorial seas and exclusive economic zones of two or more coastal States
Mediterranean: a large inland sea between South Europe, North Africa, and South-West Asia; it is linked with the Atlantic Ocean by the Straights of Gibraltar, with the Red Sea by the Suez Canal, and with the Black Sea by the Dardanelles, Sea of Marmara, and the Bosporus; many ancient civilizations developed around its shores
Red Sea: a long, narrow sea between Arabia and North-East Africa; it is linked with the Mediterranean in the North by the Suez Canal, and with the Indian Ocean in the South; it is occasionally reddish in appearance through algea
open seas: open ocean waters; synonyms: high seas, international waters, ocean blue, seven seas
Dead Sea: a lake between Israel and Jordan, 397 metres [1302 feet] below sea-level; the lowest lake in the world with no outlet and very high salinity
340 square miles: 880.22 square kilometers
10,523,000,000 tonnes: 10 billion 523 million tonnes
beds of rock salt: salt occurs naturally in underground deposits, and occasionally in surface deposits in arid areas, as the mineral halite; ancient salt deposits are widespread; there are ten major salt basins in the western hemisphere, in both North America (for example, Michigan 1 2 3 4, Texas, Kansas and New York), South America and Poland as well as deposits around the world
various parts of the world: North America, (for example, Michigan 1 2 3 4, Texas, Kansas and New York), South America and Poland
evaporation of sea water: the criteria for the production of salt by the evaporation of seawater are


(1) a hot, dry climate with dry winds,

(2) land available and the sea nearby,

(3) a soil that is almost impermeable,

(4) large areas of flat ground at or below sea level,

(5) little rainfall during the evaporating months,

(6) no possibility of dilution from freshwater streams, and

(7) inexpensive transportation or nearby
fresh water: normally, water is a liquid substance made of molecules containing one atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen (H2O); pure water has no colour, no taste, no smell; it turns to a solid at 0°C and a vapour at 100°C at standard mean sea level pressure; its density is 1 gram per cubic centimetre (1 g/cm3), and it is an extremely good solvent
commercial salt: it is produced in three ways
1 sea salt (or "solar salt") refers to salt which is produced by evaporating sea water ("salt water") in large ponds; sea water contains about 2.6% sodium chloride (by weight), and there is an inexhaustible supply; sea salt is generally more expensive than mineral salt; it is usually sold as a coarse salt (and alternative to Kosher salt) and contains other trace elements which give sea salt a unique flavor;
2 mineral salt occurs naturally in many places in the world as the mineral halite ("rock salt"); it is mined and used in many processes; most commercial table salt is mined;
3 chemical processes can be used to produce a highly pure form of salt, but this is very expensive and restricted primarily for health and scientific purposes

obtained from rock salt: as in 2 above
drill wells down to the salt beds: if the salt is very deep in the earth, we need to droll a hole to reach it, press down warm water, and then pump up the salt solution
pipe: this is the double-walled tube used to press down the warm water, and to pump up the salt solution

So far so good. Now let's see the same vocabulary explanation together with the original text. Please click here for the GLOSSARY.

Now that you know everything about this topic, it is high time to test your vocabulary. Please click here for a DOUBLE-CHECK.

Chatty 012 Text & HotSpots: Why is the Ocean Salty?

WHY IS THE OCEAN SALTY?

Every now and then, we come across a fact about our earth which mystifies us and for which no answer has yet been found. Such a fact is the existence of salt in the oceans. How did it get there?

The answer is we simply don't know how the salt got into the ocean! We do know, of course, that salt is water-soluble, and so passes into the oceans with rain water. The salt of the earth's surface is constantly being dissolved and is passing into the ocean.

But we don't know whether this can account for the huge quantity of salt that is found in oceans. If all the oceans were dried up, enough salt would be left to build a wall 180 miles high and a mile thick. Such a wall would reach once around the world at the Equator! Or put another way, the rock salt obtained if all the ocenas dried up would have a bulk about 15 times as much as the entire continent of Europe!

The common salt which we all use is produced from sea water or the water of salt lakes, from salt springs, and from deposits of rock salt. The concentration of salt in sea water ranges from about three per cent to three-and-one-half per cent. Enclosed seas, such as the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, contain more salt in the water than open seas. The Dead Sea, which covers an area of about 340 square miles, contains about 10,523,000,000 tonnes of salt.

On the average, a litre of sea water contains approximately 30 grams of salt. The beds of rock salt that are formed in various parts of the world were all originally formed by the evaporation of sea water millions of years ago. Since it is necessary for about nine-tenths of the volume of sea water to evaporate for rock salt to be formed, it is believed that the thick rock-salt beds that are found were deposited in what used to be partly enclosed seas. These evaporated faster than fresh water entered them, and the rock-salt deposits were thus formed.

Most commercial salt is obtained from rock salt. The usual method is to drill wells down to the salt beds. Pure water is pumped down through a pipe. The water dissolves the salt and it is forced through another pipe up to the surface.

Chatty 011 Text: Why is the Ocean Salty?

WHY IS THE OCEAN SALTY?

Every now and then, we come across a fact about our earth which mystifies us and for which no answer has yet been found. Such a fact is the existence of salt in the oceans. How did it get there?

The answer is we simply don't know how the salt got into the ocean! We do know, of course, that salt is water-soluble, and so passes into the oceans with rain water. The salt of the earth's surface is constantly being dissolved and is passing into the ocean.

But we don't know whether this can account for the huge quantity of salt that is found in oceans. If all the oceans were dried up, enough salt would be left to build a wall 180 miles high and a mile thick. Such a wall would reach once around the world at the Equator! Or put another way, the rock salt obtained if all the ocenas dried up would have a bulk about 15 times as much as the entire continent of Europe!

The common salt which we all use is produced from sea water or the water of salt lakes, from salt springs, and from deposits of rock salt. The concentration of salt in sea water ranges from about three per cent to three-and-one-half per cent. Enclosed seas, such as the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, contain more salt in the water than open seas. The Dead Sea, which covers an area of about 340 square miles, contains about 10,523,000,000 tonnes of salt.

On the average, a litre of sea water contains approximately 30 grams of salt. The beds of rock salt that are formed in various parts of the world were all originally formed by the evaporation of sea water millions of years ago. Since it is necessary for about nine-tenths of the volume of sea water to evaporate for rock salt to be formed, it is believed that the thick rock-salt beds that are found were deposited in what used to be partly enclosed seas. These evaporated faster than fresh water entered them, and the rock-salt deposits were thus formed.

Most commercial salt is obtained from rock salt. The usual method is to drill wells down to the salt beds. Pure water is pumped down through a pipe. The water dissolves the salt and it is forced through another pipe up to the surface.

Saturday, February 26, 2005

Chatty 010 Cloze Test and Crossword Puzzle: How Big is the Universe?

Please click here for a Cloze Test on How Big is the Universe. If you send me an email, I'll be quite happy to send you a crossword about this topic.
Please put 'Chatty 010 Crossword Puzzle: How Big is the Universe?' in the Subject line.

Chatty 009 HotSpots & Advanced VocabBox: How Big is the Universe?

UNIVERSE http://explanation-guide.info/meaning/Universe.html
human mind http://explanation-guide.info/meaning/Mind.html
the earth http://explanation-guide.info/meaning/Earth.html
the solar system http://explanation-guide.info/meaning/Solar-system.html
the sun http://explanation-guide.info/meaning/Sun.html
the planets http://explanation-guide.info/meaning/List-of-planets.html
the asteroids http://explanation-guide.info/meaning/Asteroids.html
meteor http://explanation-guide.info/meaning/Meteor.html
a galaxy http://explanation-guide.info/meaning/Galaxy.html
the Milky Way http://explanation-guide.info/meaning/Milky-Way.html
light year http://www.howstuffworks.com/question94.htm
Alpha Centauri http://explanation-guide.info/meaning/Alpha-Centauri.html

Chatty 008 HotSpots & Intermediate VocabBox & Glossary & Vocabulary Double-Check: How Big is the Universe?

UNIVERSE: all existing matter, energy, and space
human mind: the faculty of original or creative thought; imagination
conceive: develop or form in the mind
the earth: the third planet from the sun; the only planet on which life is known to exist
the solar system: the system containing the sun and the bodies held in its gravitational field, including the planets [Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto], the asteroids, and comets
the sun: the star that is the source of heat and light for the planets in the solar system
the planets: any one of the nine celestial bodies that revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits, and are illuminated by light from the sun
revolve: move around a centre
the asteroids: any of numerous celestial bodies that move around the sun mainly between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
meteor: a celestial body that travels around the sun, usually in a highly elliptical orbit; it consists of a solid frozen head, and a long luminous tail
a galaxy: any of a vast number of star systems that are held together by gravitational attraction
the Milky Way: the diffuse band of light stretching across the night sky that consists of millions of stars
light year: a unit of distance used in astronomy, equal to the distance travelled by light in one year
6,000,000,000,000: six million million; formerly [in Britain] six billion
bright: emitting or reflecting much light
Alpha Centauri: a binary [double] star that is the brightest in the constellation Centaurus
25,000,000,000,000: twenty-five million million; formerly [in Britain] twenty-five billion
expand: make or become greater in extent, volume, or size
far apart: separate in time, place, or position; at a great distance

So far so good. Now let's see the same vocabulary explanation together with the original text. Please click here for the GLOSSARY.

Now that you know everything about this topic, it is high time to test your vocabulary. Please click here for a DOUBLE-CHECK.

Friday, February 25, 2005

Chatty 007 Text & HotSpots: How Big is the Universe?

HOW BIG IS THE UNIVERSE?

It is impossible for the human mind to conceive a true picture of the size of the universe. We not only don't know how big it is, but it is hard for us even to imagine how big it might be.

If we start from the earth and move out, we'll see why this is so. The earth is part of the solar system, but a very tiny part of it. The solar system consists of the sun, the planets that revolve around it, the asteroids, which are tiny planets, and the meteors.

Now, this whole solar system of ours is only a tiny part of another, much bigger system called "a galaxy." A galaxy is made up of many millions of stars, many of which may be much larger than our sun, and they may have solar systems of their own.

So the stars we see in our galaxy, which we call "the Milky Way," are all suns. They are all so far away that distances are measured in light years instead of in miles. Light travels about 6,000,000,000,000 miles in a year. The bright star nearest to the earth is Alpha Centauri. Do you know how far away it is? 25,000,000,000,000 miles!

But we're still talking only about our own galaxy. This is believed to be about 100,000 light years in width. This means 100,000 times 6,000,000,000,000 miles! And our galaxy is only a tiny part of a still larger system.

There are probably millions of galaxies out beyond the Milky Way. And perhaps all these galaxies put together are still only a part of some larger system!

So you see why it is impossible for us to have an idea of the size of the universe. Incidentally, it is believed by scientists that the universe is expanding. This means that every few billion years two galaxies will find themselves twice as far apart as they were before!

Chatty 006 Text: How Big is the Universe?

HOW BIG IS THE UNIVERSE?

It is impossible for the human mind to conceive a true picture of the size of the universe. We not only don't know how big it is, but it is hard for us even to imagine how big it might be.

If we start from the earth and move out, we'll see why this is so. The earth is part of the solar system, but a very tiny part of it. The solar system consists of the sun, the planets that revolve around it, the asteroids, which are tiny planets, and the meteors.

Now, this whole solar system of ours is only a tiny part of another, much bigger system called "a galaxy." A galaxy is made up of many millions of stars, many of which may be much larger than our sun, and they may have solar systems of their own.

So the stars we see in our galaxy, which we call "the Milky Way," are all suns. They are all so far away that distances are measured in light years instead of in miles. Light travels about 6,000,000,000,000 miles in a year. The bright star nearest to the earth is Alpha Centauri. Do you know how far away it is? 25,000,000,000,000 miles!

But we're still talking only about our own galaxy. This is believed to be about 100,000 light years in width. This means 100,000 times 6,000,000,000,000 miles! And our galaxy is only a tiny part of a still larger system.

There are probably millions of galaxies out beyond the Milky Way. And perhaps all these galaxies put together are still only a part of some larger system!

So you see why it is impossible for us to have an idea of the size of the universe. Incidentally, it is believed by scientists that the universe is expanding. This means that every few billion years two galaxies will find themselves twice as far apart as they were before!

Friday, February 18, 2005

Chatty 005 Cloze Test and Crossword Puzzle: What is the United Nations?

Please click here for a Cloze Test on What is the United Nations. If you send me an email, I'll be quite happy to send you a crossword about this topic.
Please put 'Chatty 005 Crossword Puzzle: What is the United Nations?' in the Subject line.

Chatty 004 HotSpots & Advanced VocabBox: What is the United Nations?

Thursday, February 17, 2005

Chatty 003 HotSpots & Intermediate VocabBox & Glossary & Vocabulary Double-Check: What is the United Nations?

tension: mental or emotional strain or stress
United Nations: an international organization of independent states, with its headquarters in New York City, that was formed in 1945 to promote peace and international coopertation and security
establish: create or set up an organization on a permanent basis
description: a statement or account that tells about characteristic features
government: the executive policy-making body of a state or political unit; generally it is the Prime Minister with all the Ministers [Secretaries] and State Secretaries
prevent: keep from happening esp by precautionary action
international: concerning or involving two or more nations or nationalities
Constitution: the fundamental political principles on which a state or an organization of states are governed
Charter: a fundamental document issued by a society or an organization on which operation is based
San Francisco: a port in West California, situated around the Golden Gate
50 nations: in 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter
maintain peace: continue or retain peaceful relations
settling disputes: determine legal problems by agreement of the parties without resort to court action
aggression: an attack or harmful action, esp an unprovoked attack by one country against another
armed attack: launch a physical assault against another country with weapons
friendly relations: showing or expressing goodwill, liking, and trust
equal rights: freedom from discrimination based on sex, age, race, marital status, language, dialect, or political views
choice of government: the legal / constitutional possibility to vote for parties, through the parties for Prime Minister, and through Prime Minister for Government
international cooperation: joint operation or action between different countries or nationalities
economic problems: problems relating to economics or finance
social problems: problems relating to human society or any of its subdivisions
cultural problems: problems relating to culture or civilization
humanitarian problems: problems relating to ethical or theological issues, or to mankind
attain aims: reach objectives, goals, or aims
General Assembly: the supreme decision-making body of the United Nations
policy-making body: a group of people formulating the principles for executive bodies that act upon them; Congress is a policy-making body and Parliament is a policy-influencing body
Security Council: a permanent organ of the United Nations established to maintain world peace
permanent seats: the Security Council has 15 members and 5 members [seats] are permanent [they do not change]. These are China, France, Great Britain, the United States, and Russia.
special voting privileges: the five permanent members of the Security Council have special voting privileges; they can veto any decision or proposal
Economic and Social Council: [ECOSOC] is responsible for promoting higher standards of living, full employment, and economic and social progress; identifying solutions to international economic, social and health problems; facilitating international cultural and educational cooperation; and encouraging universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms
promote the welfare of peoples: help other peoples in their economic and financial development
human rights: the rights of individuals to liberty, justice, and equal treatment
fundamental freedoms: personal liberty, as from slavery, bondage, and serfdom
Trusteeship Council: one of the principal organs of the United Nations; it was established to help ensure that non-self-governing territories were administered in the best interests of the inhabitants and of international peace and security
supervise: direct or oversee the performance or operation
welfare of dependent peoples: the economic or financial development of nations or nationalities that cannot exercise self-government
self-government: the government of a country or nation by its own people
International Court of Justice: (known colloquially as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations
legal disputes: argument or quarrel that is sorted out with the help of law and law courts
Secretariat: one of the principal organs of the United Nations and it is headed by the United Nations Secretary General, assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide. It provides studies, information, and facilities needed by United Nations bodies for their meetings
administrative and office staff: a staff of international civil servants worldwide
Secretary-General: the chief administrative official of the United Nations
So far so good. Now let's see the same vocabulary explanation together with the original text. Please click here for the GLOSSARY.
Now that you know everything about this topic, it is high time to test your vocabulary. Please click here for a DOUBLE-CHECK.

Chatty 002 Text & HotSpots: What is the United Nations?

In these times of world tension, we hear a great deal about the United Nations. What is it? Why was it established? What is it supposed to do? We can give only a brief description of the United Nations here, but here are some things you should know about it.
The United Nations is an organization of governments. It was set up to prevent war and to build a better world for all by dealing with problems which can best be solved through international action. The UN Constitution, known as the Charter, was signed in San Francisco on June 26, 1945, by representatives of 50 nations.
According to the Charter, the UN has four chief purposes.
  • The first is to maintain peace by settling disputes peacefully or by taking steps to stop aggression, that is, armed attack.
  • The second is to develop friendly relations among nations based on the equal rights of peoples and their own choices of government.
  • The third is to achieve international cooperation in solving economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems.
  • And the fourth is to serve as a center where the actions of nations can be combined in trying to attain these aims.

The UN is devided into six main working groups.

  • The first is the General Assembly. Made up of all the members, each with one vote, it is the policy-making body of the UN.
  • The second is the Security Council, which is responsible for the maintenance of peace. China, France, Great Britain, Russia, and the United States have permanent seats and special voting privileges. The other six members are elected by the General Assembly for terms of two years.
  • The third is the Economic and Social Council with eighteen members. Its job is to promote the welfare of peoples and to further human rights and fundamental freedoms.
  • The fourth is the Trusteeship Council which supervises the welfare of dependent peoples under the UN and helps them towards self-government.
  • The fifth is the International Court of Justice which settles legal disputes.
  • The sixth is the Secretariat, the administrative and office staff of the UN. Its chief officer is Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Chatty 001 Text: What is the United Nations?

In these times of world tension, we hear a great deal about the United Nations. What is it? Why was it established? What is it supposed to do? We can give only a brief description of the United Nations here, but here are some things you should know about it.
The United Nations is an organization of governments. It was set up to prevent war and to build a better world for all by dealing with problems which can best be solved through international action. The UN Constitution, known as the Charter, was signed in San Francisco on June 26, 1945, by representatives of 50 nations.
According to the Charter, the UN has four chief purposes.
  • The first is to maintain peace by settling disputes peacefully or by taking steps to stop aggression, that is, armed attack.
  • The second is to develop friendly relations among nations based on the equal rights of peoples and their own choices of government.
  • The third is to achieve international cooperation in solving economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems.
  • And the fourth is to serve as a center where the actions of nations can be combined in trying to attain these aims.

The UN is devided into six main working groups.

  • The first is the General Assembly. Made up of all the members, each with one vote, it is the policy-making body of the UN.
  • The second is the Security Council, which is responsible for the maintenance of peace. China, France, Great Britain, Russia, and the United States have permanent seats and special voting privileges. The other six members are elected by the General Assembly for terms of two years.
  • The third is the Economic and Social Council with eighteen members. Its job is to promote the welfare of peoples and to further human rights and fundamental freedoms.
  • The fourth is the Trusteeship Council which supervises the welfare of dependent peoples under the UN and helps them towards self-government.
  • The fifth is the International Court of Justice which settles legal disputes.
  • The sixth is the Secretariat, the administrative and office staff of the UN. Its chief officer is Secretary-General of the United Nations.

What is the aim of this WebLog? To the Teacher 5

I have four main aims with this WebLog and they are as follows:
  • I want to give a chance for my own students who want to further practise the materials we have learned together,
  • I want to give a chance for my students to extend their skills coming from our speech-culture towards their literacy skills,
  • I want to give a chance for anyone else, teachers and students alike, to copy our examples and use them as they like, and
  • I want to induce teachers and students alike into writing better materials than this.

Active listening when in triplets To the Teacher 4

Besides lending your listening ear to the two more active members of the triplet and watching the body-language, pensive clues, etc. accompanying the information-flow, you can also practise listening to your personal, guardian 'inner voice'.
Silent 'free attention', aka 'credulous listening', can be conveyed as
  • encouraging, i. e. without demand,
  • supportive, i. e. without judgement, and
  • empathic and emotionally warm, i. e. without criticism.

What is JigSawing? To the Teacher 3

JigSawing is the combination of HotSpot Reading and ChatterBoxing; the combination of 'here-and-now', and reflection on past experiences. Students pay as much attention for the experience as possible, both for external exents and for their internal processes.
  • Attention for events external to ourselves correspond with what we can label 'observation skills'.
  • Attention for external processes and behaviour corresponds to what we call 'self-awareness'.

What is HotSpot Reading? To the Teacher 2

A pair or a triplet of Students co-read and discuss any sort of study-material distributed by the Teacher / Trainer. They stop reading at loaded words, or expressions, or data, or bits of information, i. e. at HotSpots, and spill out whatever crosses their mind.
  • If they know it and it produces a new thought, or it links in an old association, that's why.
  • If they don't know it and it raises a good question, that's why.
  • In this way the activity involves students in their own learning. They are allowed to tailor their own progress, and to learn at their own pace.
  • They are given the opportunity to ask questions, and to stop and test their learning en route.
  • The whole session is like an extended conversation that forms a two-way communication link. and there is a measure of symmetry between the peers.
  • The behaviour of the peers becomes concerted, and cooperative, and it is directed towards a common goal, i. e. synthetic understanding, soon followed by analytic understanding.
  • What peers learn here is not learned as a subject. It is learned as a revelation with a concern element in it.

What is ChatterBoxing? To the Teacher 1

Quite easily ChatterBoxing is the most important type of exercise from the very early life of the Group onwards. The single aim of the exercise is to give Students a direct experience in effective human communication. Very important useful by-products of the exercise are
  • the possibility for the Students to practise all the four main skills, i. e. listening comprehension, speaking, reading comprehension, and writing;
  • the possibility for the Students to build this sort of exercises into their other types of learning; and
  • the intensive milling / mixing effect all across the Group.

Method: 6 to 8 different bits of information are distributed in the Group [ 1 for everyone]. After a quick, silent gist-reading, group-members pair-off and 'teach' their pieces of information all across the Group and 'learn' everybody else's piece of information in rotation.

  • Group-members in speaker roles gist-read, describe, paraphrase, and / or demonstrate.
  • Group-members in listener roles give free attention, and take notes.
  • The exercise helps Students in fluency, deep understanding, and their growing resolution of information.

Warning: it takes some time for the newcomer to get to like this exercise since it is something they have never done before.